“Justification by faith alone” is the very heart of the Reformation. It means that God declares us righteous (justified) because of the merits of Christ alone, which we embrace by faith alone. We cannot work toward or earn our justification by cooperating with God’s grace or trying to improve the moral quality of our lives. The good works we are called to express (Ephesians 2:10) follow our justification. They do not lead to or produce it. This is the profound truth Martin Luther grasped. It is the Apostle Paul’s story, who had every reason to have confidence in his merits and character, but rejected it all for faith alone in Christ.